One, two, three, what are they fighting for?

The worst problem facing US forces in Iraq may not be armed resistance but
a crisis of morale. Robert Fisk reports on a near-epidemic of indiscipline,
suicides and loose talk

By Robert Fisk

The Independent

24 October 2003

 I was in the police station in the town of
Fallujah when I realised the extent of the schizophrenia. Captain
Christopher Cirino of the 82nd Airborne was trying to explain to me the
nature of the attacks so regularly carried out against American forces in
the Sunni Muslim Iraqi town. His men were billeted in a former presidential
rest home down the road - "Dreamland", the Americans call it - but this was
not the extent of his soldiers' disorientation. "The men we are being
attacked by," he said, "are Syrian-trained terrorists and local freedom
fighters." Come again? "Freedom fighters." But that's what Captain Cirino
called them - and rightly so.

Here's the reason. All American soldiers are supposed to believe - indeed
have to believe, along with their President and his Defence Secretary,
Donald Rumsfeld - that Osama bin Laden's "al-Qa'ida" guerrillas, pouring
over Iraq's borders from Syria, Iran, Saudi Arabia (note how those close
allies and neighbours of Iraq, Kuwait and Turkey are always left out of the
equation), are assaulting United States forces as part of the "war on
terror". Special forces soldiers are now being told by their officers that
the "war on terror" has been transferred from America to Iraq, as if in
some miraculous way, 11 September 2001 is now Iraq 2003. Note too how the
Americans always leave the Iraqis out of the culpability bracket - unless
they can be described as "Baath party remnants", "diehards" or "deadenders"
by the US proconsul, Paul Bremer.

Captain Cirino's problem, of course, is that he knows part of the truth.
Ordinary Iraqis - many of them long-term enemies of Saddam Hussein - are
attacking the American occupation army 35 times a day in the Baghdad area
alone. And Captain Cirino works in Fallujah's local police station, where
America's newly hired Iraqi policemen are the brothers and uncles and - no
doubt - fathers of some of those now waging guerrilla war against American
soldiers in Fallujah. Some of them, I suspect, are indeed themselves the
"terrorists". So if he calls the bad guys "terrorists", the local cops -
his first line of defence - would be very angry indeed.

No wonder morale is low. No wonder the American soldiers I meet on the
streets of Baghdad and other Iraqi cities don't mince their words about
their own government. US troops have been given orders not to bad-mouth
their President or Secretary of Defence in front of Iraqis or reporters
(who have about the same status in the eyes of the occupation authorities).
But when I suggested to a group of US military police near Abu Ghurayb they
would be voting Republican at the next election, they fell about laughing.
"We shouldn't be here and we should never have been sent here," one of them
told me with astonishing candour. "And maybe you can tell me: why were we
sent here?"

Little wonder, then, that Stars and Stripes, the American military's own
newspaper, reported this month that one third of the soldiers in Iraq
suffered from low morale. And is it any wonder, that being the case, that
US forces in Iraq are shooting down the innocent, kicking and brutalising
prisoners, trashing homes and - eyewitness testimony is coming from
hundreds of Iraqis - stealing money from houses they are raiding? No, this
is not Vietnam - where the Americans sometimes lost 3,000 men in a month -
nor is the US army in Iraq turning into a rabble. Not yet. And they remain
light years away from the butchery of Saddam's henchmen. But human-rights
monitors, civilian occupation officials and journalists - not to mention
Iraqis themselves - are increasingly appalled at the behaviour of the
American military occupiers.

Iraqis who fail to see US military checkpoints, who overtake convoys under
attack - or who merely pass the scene of an American raid - are being
gunned down with abandon. US official "inquiries" into these killings
routinely result in either silence or claims that the soldiers "obeyed
their rules of engagement" - rules that the Americans will not disclose to
the public.

The rot comes from the top. Even during the Anglo-American invasion of
Iraq, US forces declined to take responsibility for the innocents they
killed. "We do not do body counts," General Tommy Franks announced. So
there was no apology for the 16 civilians killed at Mansur when the
"Allies" - note how we Brits get caught up in this misleading title -
bombed a residential suburb in the vain hope of killing Saddam. When US
special forces raided a house in the very same area four months later -
hunting for the very same Iraqi leader - they killed six civilians,
including a 14-year-old boy and a middle-aged woman, and only announced,
four days later, that they would hold an "inquiry". Not an investigation,
you understand, nothing that would suggest there was anything wrong in
gunning down six Iraqi civilians; and in due course the "inquiry" was
forgotten - as it was no doubt meant to be - and nothing has been heard of
it again.

Again, during the invasion, the Americans dropped hundreds of cluster bombs
on villages outside the town of Hillah. They left behind a butcher's shop
of chopped-up corpses. Film of babies cut in half during the raid was not
even transmitted by the Reuters crew in Baghdad. The Pentagon then said
there were "no indications" cluster bombs had been dropped at Hillah - even
though Sky TV found some unexploded and brought them back to Baghdad.

I first came across this absence of remorse - or rather absence of
responsibility - in a slum suburb of Baghdad called Hayy al-Gailani. Two
men had run a new American checkpoint - a roll of barbed wire tossed across
a road before dawn one morning in July - and US troops had opened fire at
the car. Indeed, they fired so many bullets that the vehicle burst into
flames. And while the dead or dying men were burned inside, the Americans
who had set up the checkpoint simply boarded their armoured vehicles and
left the scene. They never even bothered to visit the hospital mortuary to
find out the identities of the men they killed - an obvious step if they
believed they had killed "terrorists" - and inform their relatives. Scenes
like this are being repeated across Iraq daily.

Which is why Human Rights Watch and Amnesty and other humanitarian
organisations are protesting ever more vigorously about the failure of the
US army even to count the numbers of Iraqi dead, let alone account for
their own role in killing civilians. "It is a tragedy that US soldiers have
killed so many civilians in Baghdad," Human Rights Watch's Joe Stork said.
"But it is really incredible that the US military does not even count these
deaths." Human Rights Watch has counted 94 Iraqi civilians killed by
Americans in the capital. The organisation also criticised American forces
for humiliating prisoners, not least by their habit of placing their feet
on the heads of prisoners. Some American soldiers are now being trained in
Jordan - by Jordanians - in the "respect" that should be accorded to Iraqi
civilians and about the culture of Islam. About time.

But on the ground in Iraq, Americans have a licence to kill. Not a single
soldier has been disciplined for shooting civilians - even when the
fatality involves an Iraqi working for the occupation authorities. No
action has been taken, for instance, over the soldier who fired a single
shot through the window of an Italian diplomat's car, killing his
translator, in northern Iraq. Nor against the soldiers of the 82nd Airborne
who gunned down 14 Sunni Muslim protesters in Fallujah in April. (Captain
Cirino was not involved.) Nor against the troops who shot dead 11 more
protesters in Mosul. Sometimes, the evidence of low morale mounts over a
long period. In one Iraqi city, for example, the "Coalition Provisional
Authority" - which is what the occupation authorities call themselves -
have instructed local money changers not to give dollars for Iraqi dinars
to occupation soldiers: too many Iraqi dinars had been stolen by troops
during house raids. Repeatedly, in Baghdad, Hillah, Tikrit, Mosul and
Fallujah Iraqis have told me that they were robbed by American troops
during raids and at checkpoints. Unless there is a monumental conspiracy on
a nationwide scale by Iraqis, some of these reports must bear the stamp of

Then there was the case of the Bengal tiger. A group of US troops entered
the Baghdad zoo one evening for a party of sandwiches and beer. During the
party, one of the soldiers decided to pet the tiger who - being a Bengal
tiger - sank his teeth into the soldier. The Americans then shot the tiger
dead. The Americans promised an "inquiry" - of which nothing has been heard
since. Ironically, the one incident where US forces faced disciplinary
action followed an incident in which a US helicopter crew took a black
religious flag from a communications tower in Sadr City in Baghdad. The
violence that followed cost the life of an Iraqi civilian.

Suicides among US troops in Iraq have risen in recent months - up to three
times the usual rate among American servicemen. At least 23 soldiers are
believed to have taken their lives since the Anglo-American invasion and
others have been wounded in attempting suicide. As usual, the US army only
revealed this statistic following constant questioning. The daily attacks
on Americans outside Baghdad - up to 50 in a night - go, like the civilian
Iraqi dead, unrecorded. Travelling back from Fallujah to Baghdad after dark
last month, I saw mortar explosions and tracer fire around 13 American
bases - not a word of which was later revealed by the occupation
authorities. At Baghdad airport last month, five mortar shells fell near
the runway as a Jordanian airliner was boarding passengers for Amman. I saw
this attack with my own eyes. That same afternoon, General Ricardo Sanchez,
the senior US officer in Iraq, claimed he knew nothing about the attack,
which - unless his junior officers are slovenly - he must have been well
aware of.

But can we expect anything else of an army that can wilfully mislead
soldiers into writing "letters" to their home town papers in the US about
improvements in Iraqi daily life.

"The quality of life and security for the citizens has been largely
restored, and we are a large part of why it has happened," Sergeant
Christopher Shelton of the 503rd Airborne Infantry Regiment bragged in a
letter from Kirkuk to the Snohomish County Tribune. "The majority of the
city has welcomed our presence with open arms." Only it hasn't. And
Sergeant Shelton didn't write the letter. Nor did Sergeant Shawn Grueser of
West Virginia. Nor did Private Nick Deaconson. Nor eight other soldiers who
supposedly wrote identical letters to their local papers. The "letters"
were distributed among soldiers, who were asked to sign if they agreed with
its contents.

But is this, perhaps, not part of the fantasy world inspired by the
right-wing ideologues in Washington who sought this war - even though most
of them have never served their country in uniform. They dreamed up the
"weapons of mass destruction" and the adulation of American troops who
would "liberate" the Iraqi people. Unable to provide fact to fiction, they
now merely acknowledge that the soldiers they have sent into the biggest
rat's nest in the Middle East have "a lot of work to do", that they are -
this was not revealed before or during the invasion - "fighting the front
line in the war on terror".

What influence, one might ask, have the Christian fundamentalists had on
the American army in Iraq? For even if we ignore the Rev Franklin Graham,
who has described Islam as "a very evil and wicked religion" before he went
to lecture Pentagon officials - what is one to make of the officer
responsible for tracking down Osama bin Laden, Lieutenant-General William
"Jerry" Boykin, who told an audience in Oregon that Islamists hate the US
"because we're a Christian nation, because our foundation and our roots are
Judeo-Christian and the enemy is a guy called Satan". Recently promoted to
deputy under-secretary of defence for intelligence, Boykin went on to say
of the war against Mohammed Farrah Aidid in Somalia - in which he
participated - that "I knew my God was bigger than his - I knew that my God
was a real God and his was an idol".

Secretary of Defence Donald Rumsfeld said of these extraordinary remarks
that "it doesn't look like any rules were broken". We are now told that an
"inquiry" into Boykin's comments is underway - an "inquiry" about as
thorough, no doubt, as those held into the killing of civilians in Baghdad.

Weaned on this kind of nonsense, however, is it any surprise that American
troops in Iraq understand neither their war nor the people whose country
they are occupying? Terrorists or freedom fighters? What's the difference?


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