View Israel Shamir's The
Shadow of Zog
On 28 October 2002 Israel
Shamir advises firstname.lastname@example.org
Now, the idea of One Man, One
Vote in the whole of Palestine began to seep
down, almost a year and a half after this list called for this
Forgotten after the 1988 rejection by PLO, this way is still the only
impasse. Here are two fresh items on the subject.
P.A.: IT MAY BE TOO LATE FOR TWO STATES
By Marc Perelman
October 25, 2002 Issue
The Palestinian Authority has told the Bush administration it
consider abandoning its support for a two-state solution to the
Israeli-Palestinian conflict and instead press for equal
for Palestinians inside one binational state if Israeli
activity continues unabated.
In a little-noticed memo and a letter handed earlier this month to
American officials, the P.A. states that Israeli settlement
is eliminating the possibility of a viable Palestinian state and
forcing the Palestinian leadership to reconsider the two-state
that has been the basis of negotiations during the last decade.
While Israel and its supporters here have accused the P.A. of de
abandoning the two-state solution by launching the intifada in
September 2000, the Palestinian leadership has never officially
renounced the Oslo process.
The P.A. messages suggest the deepest deterioration yet of the
diplomatic process since the outbreak of the intifada, and come as
Bush administration is pushing a three-year roadmap toward two
The messages were echoed by a recent opinion article in the Israeli
Arab press by the United Nations' special envoy to the region,
Roed-Larsen, in which he claimed that Israeli settlement expansion
"vicious terror attacks" by Palestinians are threatening the
of a two-state solution.
"This is just despair setting in," said Stephen P. Cohen, a Middle
expert with the Israel Policy Forum, a left-leaning think tank.
is a growing realization in Israel and among Palestinians that
situation on the ground is becoming defined by the erasure of the
Line as previously understood... You now have a Jewish state on
sides of the Green Line, one where there is a Jewish majority and
where there is a Jewish minority ruling an Arab majority. So you
the feeling we are back to the notion of Palestinians getting
rights in a single state."
Palestinian Finance Minister Salem Fayad handed the 10-page memo
five detailed maps of settlement activity on October 7 to Secretary
State Colin Powell and his senior aide David Satterfield, according
Diana Buttu, a Palestinian legal adviser who was briefed by
National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice received the package
following day, Buttu said.
A week later, Ahmed Qureia, the speaker of the Palestinian
and veteran negotiator also known as Abu Ala, sent a letter to
White House repeating the allegations, according to Edward Abington,
former American consul general in Jerusalem who now works as a
for the P.A. in Washington.
"Israel's ongoing colony construction and other unilateral measures
the Occupied Palestinian territories are effectively pre-empting
possibility of a two-state solution of a viable Palestinian State
alongside Israel," the memo said. "If the international community
continues to remain unwilling to rein in Israeli colony
and expansion, irreversible 'facts on the ground' and the de
apartheid system such facts create will force Palestinian policy
to re-evaluate the plausibility of a two-state solution....
ultimate goal is to permit a Palestinian 'state' which would be
effect the Middle Eastern equivalent of a Native American Indian
While the memo did not explain what alternatives to a two-state
solution the P.A. would pursue, Buttu said Fayad told American
officials that the two other choices would be the transfer of the
Palestinian population by Israel or Palestinian demand of equal
citizenship in a single state.
"Powell and Rice were surprised," she said.
Sean Mac Cormack, a spokesman for the National Security Council,
declined to comment about the details of the meeting with Rice.
State Department did not return calls seeking comment. No
American reaction to the memo or letter has been registered.
An Israeli official dismissed the Palestinian contentions.
"Israel has long been committed to reaching a two-state solution
on land-for-peace through negotiations, but there can be
only when the P.A.-supported terror ends," said Yaffa Ben-Ari, a
spokeswoman for the Foreign Ministry. "The settlement issue may be
concern for some people but it certainly is not an obstacle.
Palestinian terror is."
In what Palestinian and U.N. officials claim was not a
move, Roed-Larsen, the U.N. special envoy to the region and a
Norwegian foreign minister who played a key role in the Oslo
negotiations, wrote a somber opinion article that was published
week in the London-based Arabic daily Al-Hayat and the Israeli
Ha'aretz and repeated in a statement from his office.
"A viable, independent Palestine alongside Israel is still
But perhaps not for much longer, given four undeniable trends at
today," he wrote in Ha'aretz. "The first two are readily apparent -
deteriorating security situation fueled by vicious terror attacks
widespread violence against civilians, and an unprecedented
humanitarian crisis. The other two, while less visceral, have
long-term implications: The gradual destruction of the
Authority and Israel's expansion of its West Bank settlements."
Larsen claimed the unabated settlement activity "is perhaps the
significant of all." In an unusual departure from his diplomatic
reserve, he issued a blunt warning to the international
"These trends force me, and I am far from alone, to ask two very
troubling questions," he added. "Are we nearing the death of the
two-state solution, the bedrock for all our peacemaking efforts? And
so, are we prepared for the consequences? If indeed we are at a
critical juncture, it is most vividly seen in the growing chasm
the diplomatic efforts to forge a peace agreement."
The Foreign Ministry's Ben-Ari declined to react to Larsen's
statements, adding, "anyone who comes to assist the two sides should
acting as a facilitator."
Larsen has had numerous run-ins with the Israeli government in
months, most notably after he said during a visit to the Jenin
last April in the wake of an Israeli operation that what he saw
"horrific beyond belief." Several Israeli officials then called
Larsen's removal, but U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan refused. A
report later confirmed that no massacre had taken place.
Some sources speculated that the P.A. had timed the delivery of
memo to come before Prime Minister Sharon's visit to Washington and
trip to the region by the assistant secretary of state for Near
affairs, William Burns. The sources said the Palestinians realize
Bush administration is seeking to calm Arab anger over Iraq and that
might therefore be more inclined to listen to Palestinian
But it is equally likely that the P.A. may simply have seized the
opportunity of a rare meeting with top American officials to convey
Fayad, a former World Bank official picked several months ago by
to streamline the P.A. finances - he is likely to be reappointed in
upcoming cabinet - was in Washington to negotiate the release by
of Palestinian tax revenues.
Since he is one of the few Palestinian officials considered by
Israel and the Bush administration to be a reliable interlocutor,
Palestinian diplomats hurriedly summarized a 22-page memo they
still working on into a 10-page document so that Fayad could hand it
"We have been repeating the same message for months," Ghassan
the acting Palestinian labor minister, told the Forward. "This was
way to alert the administration. But I am not sure this
cares," he added, pointing to the lack of official reaction.
The memo, which was distributed to diplomats in the region in
weeks, details settlement construction around Jerusalem,
"Municipal Jerusalem is a prominent example of the elimination of
signs of the Green Line through contiguous urban development."
It also claims that the construction of the security fence "will
effectively serve as a means by which Israel can consolidate and
facto annex all Occupied Palestinian territory on the western side
the wall," where some 320,000 Palestinians live.
Some experts pointed out that by raising the equal-citizenship
the P.A. was playing with Israeli demographic fears.
"The abandonment of a two-state solution would be a catastrophe
Israel as the Palestinian will be a majority within a decade in
area from the Mediterranean to the Jordan River now controlled by
Israel," said Judith Kipper, an expert with the Center for
and International Studies in Washington.
The FORWARD is a Jewish weekly published in New York.
"I would much rather see reasonable
agreement with the Arabs on the
basis of living together in peace than the creation of a Jewish
(Albert Einstein, in Ideas and Opinions, [Crown Publishers, New
"A state cannot be Jewish, just as a
chair or a bus cannot be
Jewish...The state is no more than a tool, a tool that is efficient
tool that is defective, a tool that is suitable or a tool that is
undesirable. And this tool must belong to all its citizens -- Jews,
Christians...The concept of a 'Jewish State' is nothing other than a
(Amos Oz, Israel's preeminent writer of fiction, in "A Laden Wagon
Empty Wagon? Reflections on the Culture of Israel," Free Judaism,
1997, p. 5 [Hebrew])
SHOULD THERE BE A JEWISH STATE?
By John Spritzler
New Democracy Newsletter, May-August
Ted Koppel's Nightline ABC-TV show April 18, 2002 featured the
it anti-Semitic to criticize the Israeli government's policy
Palestinians?" Koppel was interviewing the head of the Jewish
Anti-Defamation League, who replied that Israel was a sovereign state
course it was permissible to criticize its policies. But, he warned,
oppose the idea of a Jewish state went over the line and was pure
anti-Semitism. Koppel smiled agreeably and gave no hint that a
person might disagree.
The idea of a Jewish state (whose Jewish proponents call
'Zionists') is sacrosanct in the mainstream U.S. media, which does
voice to the troublesome questions raised by the issue, in particular
many Jews have historically opposed the idea of a Jewish state.
establishment of Israel has been far more controversial among Jews
Americans are aware. Jewish opponents of a Jewish state believed
democracy with equal rights for Jews and non-Jews, and thought a
Jewish sovereignty would be disastrous for ordinary Jews.
THE APARTHEID STATE
What is Jewish about the Jewish state of Israel? It's not that Israel
state where only Jews live. One fifth of the Israeli population
non-Jewish. The Jewishness of Israel is embodied in a set of laws
confer rights and benefits on Jews but not on others. Were this not
Israel would not deserve to be called a Jewish state. But because it
true, Jews and non-Jews are not equal before the law in Israel.
The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel,
declaration of independence, signed May 14, 1948 is a two page
which clearly defines Israel as a Jewish state. The document stresses
the sovereign authority in Israel is the Jewish people: "This right
natural right of the Jewish people to be masters of their own fate,
other nations, in their own sovereign state." It repeatedly uses
emphasize this point: 'Jewish people...in its own country', 'Jewish
to rebuild its national home', 'Jewish state', 'right of the Jewish
to establish their state', 'Jewish people in the upbuilding of its
'sovereign Jewish people'.
Where does this leave Arabs, who are currently 20% of the population
Israel (not counting the Gaza Strip and the West Bank)? The
makes a clear distinction between Jews, who are the sovereign
Israel, and the Arab inhabitants who are not. The second-class status
Arabs inside Israel is enforced by laws that privilege being Jewish,
than by a formal denial to Arabs of citizenship or the right to vote
hold office. Thus the document says that Arabs shall have "complete
of social and political rights" and "full and equal citizenship and
representation in all its [Israel's] provisional and
institutions." But the Law of Return, passed in 1950, begins: "Every
the right to immigrate to the country." Yet one of the central
Palestinians is that they cannot do the same thing; they cannot
their homes of many generations in Israel. Even Arabs who never left
but who only stayed for a few days in a nearby village with relatives
wait for the fighting in 1948 to end, are now categorized in Israel
"present absentees," a category in which they remain forever, and
consequence of which their homes and property remain in the
the Custodian of Absentee Property, who puts the property at the
Private organizations serving only Jewish interests hold
authority in Israel for policies that affect non-Jews. The main
this is the Jewish Agency, which calls itself "the agency for
interests in Eretz ["the land of"] Israel...[it's]
role is defined...as a
voluntary, philanthropic organization with responsibility for
settlement and development, and coordination of the unity of the
people." The (Jewish) Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs
Jewish Agency as "a quasi-public, voluntary institution sharing many,
overlapping, functional jurisdictions with government." 
Yes, Arabs could
set up a private 'Arab Agency', but it would not have the
power, for example, to dispose of Jewish property the way the law
Jewish Agency to dispose of Arab property: the state's Custodian of
Property hands Arab property to the Jewish Agency, but it does not
Jewish property to any Arab agency. Jews don't have their
confiscated as 'present absentees' because Jews, unlike Arabs, enjoy
'Right of Return'.
From 'Letter to a Deportee
"For twenty years, I knew nothing of
the Palestinian problem. I was
one year old when my parents arrived among the 50,000 Bulgarian Jews
decided to immigrate to the new Jewish state. That was in 1948 when
was just born. We settled in Ramle, in a big stone house that had
to an Arab family...In the back of the house was a lemon tree, which
collapsed each year under its fruit... One morning, right after the
War, a young Arab man turned up at the front door. He said: 'My name
Bashir el-Kheiri. This house belonged to my family.'
He was 26. I was 20. It was the first
time I had ever met a
One day - I shall never forget it -
Bashir's brother came to Ramle
with his father. The old man was blind. After entering the gate, he
the rugged stones of the house. Then he asked if the lemon tree was
there. He was led to the backyard. When he put his hands on the trunk
tree he had planted, he did not utter a word. Tears rolled down his
My father then gave him a lemon. He was clutching it in his hands
left. Bashir's mother told me, years later, that when her husband
sleep, he used to pace up and down their apartment holding in his
old, shriveled lemon. My father had given the same lemon to
I had always believed that the Arabs
of Ramle and Lod had fled from
the Israeli soldiers in 1948, that they had abandoned their houses
cowards... After the 1967 war, an Israeli who had participated in
expulsion from Lod and Ramle told me what really happened in July of
He told me about the cars with loudspeakers driving through
instructing the inhabitants to leave. I didn't stop loving my
because of that, but my love lost its innocence."
(From "Letter to a Deportee,"
originally printed in The Jerusalem
Post, January 14, 1988, quoted in Rene Backmann, 'The Letter to
Outlook, May 1988 http://www.vopj.org/personalnarr.htm)
The U.N. Conciliation Commission estimated that about 80 percent of
in what is today Israel is property formerly owned by Palestinians
confiscated by Jewish organizations like the Jewish
are forbidden by Israeli law from owning it. Of all the land that may
legally sold in Israel, 67% of it may not legally be sold to Arabs,
none of it is barred from being sold to Jews.  Thus, while
may be citizens in Israel, they are second class citizens, which
precisely what it means to live in a "Jewish state" when one is not
Yet another feature of Israel that makes it an apartheid state is
aims to separate Jews and Arabs on a personal level. For example, a
an Arab cannot legally marry each other in Israel; such marriages,
performed outside the country, are not recognized under Israeli
One can either be for a Jewish state or be for full equality of Jews
non-Jews inside Israel, but one cannot logically be for both.
Zionist leaders use this logic as a weapon against people (Jew and
alike) who want equality and democracy in Israel. If you say you want
to be a truly democratic state in which Jews and non-Jews have equal
then the Zionists accuse you of wanting to abolish the state of
because Israel is a Jewish state, not an "everybody who lives here"
The Zionists have made "supporting the existence of Israel" (as a
state) a litmus test; anybody who fails it is labeled either an
or a Jewish "self-hater." This puts everyone who believes in
concepts of equality on the defensive, and stifles free expression of
calling for solidarity between Jews and Arabs.
Israel is very different from virtually all other states today. If
French or American or Chinese or Nigerian and you say you want your
to be one where everybody is equal under the law and collectively
the highest authority in the land, nobody would accuse you of wanting
abolish France, the United States, or whatever. That is because, no
how undemocratic or discriminatory these governments may be, they
their existence by claiming to be a state resting on the assent of
inhabitants. Nobody, for example, who opposed Jim Crow in the United
was ever accused of thereby denying the right of the United States to
But those who make analogous demands in Israel are- with good reason-
of denying Israel's right to exist.
The right of the 'Jewish state' to exist is indeed incompatible
universalist values of equality and democracy. Israel in this respect
similar to apartheid-era South Africa. Just as Israel accuses
Arab-Jewish equality of wanting to abolish the state of Israel, South
accused advocates of black-white equality of wanting to abolish the
African state. The reasoning is the same: Arab-Jewish equality
the idea that only Jews are the sovereign authority in Israel, just
black-white equality challenged South Africa's basis in an
UNDEMOCRATIC FROM THE START
The first person in modern times seriously to call for the creation
Jewish state was Theodor Herzl, the founder of the World Zionist
Organization, who wrote The Jewish State in 1896. From its
modern origin in
Herzl's book, the concept of a Jewish state rests on a rejection of
democratic principle that states derive their right to rule from the
of the people who live in them. Herzl had to reject this
principle because Jews were not a majority in Palestine. Instead,
asserted that the Jewish state derived its legitimacy from the need
Jewish people for a guardian. That is, he intended a government
Palestine, where Jews were a minority among Arabs, to be the
over all the inhabitants (both Jews and Arabs) and yet act in the
of Jews scattered around the world.
The Zionists' break from the idea of democracy has had disastrous
consequences. Today, Israel's leaders are in a real bind. They need
legitimacy that derives from being perceived as a democracy. But
presence of large numbers of Arabs inside Israel makes it impossible
Israel to be both a 'Jewish state' (meaning only Jews are the
authority) and a democracy (meaning all inhabitants equally are
sovereign authority.) This is one reason Israeli leaders cannot
allowing Palestinians to return to the homes from which they were
Jewish military forces in 1948.
JEWS WITH OPPOSITE GOALS
The idea of a Jewish state has historically been backed by Jewish and
elites, but not by most Jews. In 1903 Theodor Herzl traveled to
two lengthy meetings with the Czar's interior minister, Wjatscheslaw
the man believed responsible for the notorious massacre of Jews at
According to Herzl's diary (August 10 and 14) Plehwe told him, "You
have to justify your movement to me. You are preaching to a
creation of an independent Jewish state capable of absorbing several
Jews would suit us best of all." Israeli historian Yoram Hazony
"As Herzl had long suspected, the czarist government, ruling 7
many of whom were increasingly drawn to socialism, was predisposed
support any scheme that might encourage Jewish
In the 1920s and '30s a great many Jews were involved in Socialist
Communist working class organizations fighting to create
revolutions in Europe, not to emigrate to Palestine. For instance, in
Henryk Erlich, the leader of the Bund - the Polish Jewish working
organization which swept the large Jewish vote in the last free
elections before the Nazi invasion - declared, "Zionism has always
Siamese twin of anti-Semitism and of every kind of national
Working class Polish Jews rejected the Zionists when they saw
leaders making deals with the most anti-Semitic politicians in Poland
the evacuation of Poland's Jews to Palestine.
Unlike the Zionists, the Bund made no demand for territory. They
equality for ordinary people as opposed to the establishment of a
state. They believed in strengthening the trade union movement and
for unity between Jewish and non-Jewish workers in Poland, and from
1945 they organized underground resistance to Nazis in the ghettoes,
concentration camps and as partisans in the forests.
In contrast to the Bund's role during the Holocaust, the World
Organization (WZO, headed by Chaim Weizmann) continued to cooperate
most reactionary and anti-Semitic elements of European society to
for its project in Palestine. For example:
· The head of
the WZO's Zionist Rescue Committee in Budapest during
the war, Rudolf Kastner, later a prominent member of Israel's
under Prime Minister Ben Gurion, collaborated with the Nazis. Kastner
made a V.I.P. by the Nazis and not required to wear a yellow Star of
because, in exchange for being allowed to hand pick a small number
educated Jews to emigrate to Palestine, he helped lure thousands
Hungarian Jews to their death without a fight by arranging for
postcards "from other Jews" to convince them that the trains to the
camps were merely taking them to be "resettled."
· The Zionist
leader Yitzhak Shamir, a future Israeli Prime
Minister, in 1941 proposed an alliance with the Nazis against Great
writing to Nazi leaders: "In the matter of concept, we identify with
why not collaborate?"
'A LOYAL JEWISH ULSTER'
The British and U.S. elites who supported the Palestine Mandate in
the creation of Israel in 1948 had no particular regard for Jews; in
they were quite content to stand by while millions of Jews were
death camps during WWII. When they did support the Mandate, their
were not altruistic but political and strategic. Sir Ronald Storrs,
first governor of Jerusalem under British rule in the 1920s,
the value of a Jewish sovereignty lay in its "forming for England a
loyal Jewish Ulster' in a sea of potentially hostile Arabism."
Thus Israel's role in the Middle East from its inception has been to
a lightning rod for class struggle in the region, provoking Arab
fomenting ethnic war so that the Arab regimes - all of which sit on
powder-keg of rebellious workers - can stay in power by directing the
of their populations against Israel. To keep this conflict going
Israel has to be made militarily strong enough to repulse any Arab
which is why the U.S. arms Israel so heavily. U.S. corporate and
leaders would never be able to muster public support for turning
a highly-militarized garrison state if they revealed to the American
their true purpose: to use the Jewish state to control the Middle
vast and rebellious working class and its oil.
To function as a lightning rod, Israel must provoke Arab hatred; it
be simply a state where Jews live and prosper in peace along with
way, for example, non-Mormons and Mormons live together in Utah, or
non-Jews in the US. It must be an ethnically divisive state, a state
'of and for the Jews', a state whose 'very existence' drives Arabs
land and incites ethnic war. Some Jews saw this from the beginning of
state of Israel. Judah Magnes, the first Chancellor of Israel's
University, opposed the 'Jewish state' idea because, as he expressed
his diary in 1942, "The slogan 'Jewish state' (or commonwealth)
equivalent, in effect, to a declaration of war by the Jews on the
Arabs." From the elite's perspective, provoking ethnic
war is precisely
the function of a Jewish state.
Corporate and government leaders do not care how many Jews die in the
fighting. As a result, ordinary Jews in public bus stops, restaurants
dance clubs are now at greater risk in Israel than in any other
is why, according to a January 2002 poll conducted by Market Watch
Israeli Ma'ariv newspaper, 20 percent of adult Israelis say
recently considered living in a different country, and 12 percent of
parents would like their children to grow up outside
DEALING WITH ANTI-SEMITISM
Zionists claim that the Holocaust demonstrates what they have
1896 - that non-Jews are innately anti-Semitic and that, to survive
hostile world, Jews need a state of their own. But the real history
Holocaust demonstrates no such thing. In fact most Germans
anti-Semitism, and working class Germans actively fought the Nazis on
streets and at the polls before Hitler was handed power by German
industrialists and aristocrats, precisely to crush the growing
movement. In the last free election (Nov. 6, 1932) before
appointment as Chancellor, the German working class parties (the
Democrats and the Communists) - both of which were known for
outspokenly opposed to anti-Semitism - out-polled the Nazis by 221 to
seats in the Reichstag. Most German workers recognized anti-Semitism
what it was: a strategy by the German elite to divide and attack all
The Holocaust does not demonstrate that non-Jews are innately
any more than slavery demonstrates that whites are innately racist
blacks. If such innate prejudice were a fact, it would be hard to
why any incident of racist or anti-Semitic graffiti in American towns
is met with public revulsion. The appropriate response to racism
anti-Semitism is to strengthen equality and solidarity among working
of all races and nationalities, not to erect ethnically pure states
tribal and inherently divisive principles. The Holocaust is no more a
for Jews to have a state of their own than slavery is a reason
African-Americans to have a pure 'Black state' of their own.
Most Jews who survived the Holocaust, when given a choice between
Israel or the United States, chose the United States because it
offer what they really wanted - a society where people are equal
law and Jews are treated the same as everybody else.
The very concept of ethnically pure states is divisive and destined
conflict. The so-called 'two state solution' in the Middle East -
establishing a Palestinian state to counter the Jewish state - is
conceptual and political trap that prevents Arab and Jewish working
from uniting around their common interests and values. The situation
Middle East cannot be solved within this framework; it leads nowhere
to more destruction and hate and more elite control.
The solution is not to establish another ethnic state but to
the ones that exist now. Israel, as well as states that are just for
or any other ethnic group, must cease to exist as states based on
and ethnic domination. They must be replaced by secular democracies
equal rights for all, regardless of their ethnic background, and with
tolerance for all religions.
Will this be easy to accomplish? Certainly not. Some of the most
elites in the world depend on continued conflict in the Middle East
maintain their power. To establish a real democracy in Palestine
require ordinary people joining together to defeat Israeli, Arab, and
elites. Real democracy will take a revolution. Is this possible? Yes,
great difficulty. Is it necessary? Absolutely, because there is no
way. The first step is to think about the problem and its solution in
way. It is time we began.
1.Tom Segev, 1949: The First Israelis, Free Press; ISBN:
4. Donna E. Arzt, professor of law, Syracuse University, presentation
December 7, 1999, meeting of the Sadat Forum at Brookings, cohosted
Richard Haass, vice-president and director of Foreign Policy Studies
Brookings Institution, and Shibley Telhami, the Anwar Sadat Chair for
and Development at the University of Maryland.
5.Alexander Safian, associate director and research director of
pro-Israel Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in
(CAMERA), a Boston-based media-watch organization, Can Arabs Buy Land
6. Theodor Herzl, The Jewish State, Harry Zohn, trans. (New York:
Press, 1970), pp. 69, 92-3. Cited by Hazony.
7. Yoram Hazony, The Jewish State: The Struggle for Israel's Soul,
Books, a New Republic Book, USA, 2001, pp.136-7
8. David Rosenberg, In Defiance of History,
9. Ben Hecht, Perfidy, Milah Press (Jerusalem, New London); ISBN:
0964688638; (April 1997)
10. David Yisraeli: "Le probleme palestinien dans la politique
1889-1945", appendix 11. Also see Lenni Brenner, Zionism in the Age
Shamir's organization (NMO) stressed that, "The NMO is closely
the totalitarian movements of Europe in its ideology and
11. Lenni Brenner, Zionism in the Age of Dictators,
citing Ronald Storrs,
12. cited in The Jewish State, by Yoram Hazony, p. 248
13. "Escaping the Hell of the Holy Land," by Sylvana Foa in The
Voice, February 13-19, 2002, http://villagevoice.com/issues/0207/foa.php